Learning And Communicative Strategies Part 1

 Introduction
 Communicative strategies are systematic techniques tied up by a speaker to plain his message when faced with some difficulty and the difficulty here refers to the speaker ' s inadequate command of the words used in the interaction ( Faerch & Kasper, 1983: 16 ). On the other hand, the period learning strategies has been festive as " the higher - procedure skills which control and regulate the more engagement - specific or more practical skills " ( Nisbet & Shucksmith, 1986: 26 ). Based on the previously mentioned definitions, it could be uttered that learning and communicative strategies direct to language learning behaviors that contribute these days or indirectly to learning. I am not very concerned here with the bearing of the two terms as much as I am concerned with the fact that most if not all non - native speakers and second - speaking learners use these strategies throughout their second / foreign speaking learning expedition. They encourage to use them to indemnify for their absence of forcible utterance enlightenment and to get themselves out of troubles when interacting in the target second / foreign speaking. These are only some of the short spell benefits of using learning and communicative strategies. In fact, the successful use of these strategies can urge longer duration speaking augmenting.

 In the first helping of this paper, I will provide examples on some of the commonly used strategies and at the same time, I will spotlight on the ways in which these strategies puff the talking learning mechanism and the enlargement of the learner ' s words skill. I will also spotlight the short and rangy tem benefits of using both learning and communicative strategies in learning and developing utterance skill. In the second component of the paper, I will grandstand play how the enlightenment of learning and communicative strategies has influenced me to chicken feed my senile style of teaching the words, and how it has sunny me to adopt a set of new methods of teaching that make high use of these strategies. Presently, I will give examples on some of the language activities that are based, in some ways, on these strategies, and are designed to nurture and grow the learner ' s utterance skill.


 Portion One:

 Teaching writing skill has been given the priority over teaching speech skill in nearly all educational syllabus and plans and the event in my country, Oman, is no exception. Writing skill has been considered the most important especially in the area of second / foreign utterance teaching. On the other hand, vocabulary skill has neither been given capable core in our teaching syllabi nor has it been represented fairly in our classrooms as opposed to the other skills. In my interpretation, most people in general and educationalists in particular, seem to have taken this skill for surely; feasibly because they suspect it is an easy one and that halfway everyone can speak. Speaking is, however, a skill which deserves much more attention in both first and second words. I have chosen to write about this skill because I know very well how important it is as a means of communication especially, for second / foreign words learners. Throughout my teaching of English as a foreign utterance, I noticed that speech was the area of weakness for the majority of my students. On the factor of teachers, not so much time was devoted to profess this skill, and on the chip of the curriculum designers, not so much labor was exerted to advance the progress of this skill. Thence, words was regarded by the students as an hindrance in the journey of learning English tolerably than as an important skill. In the following sections, I will dry run to program how this problem can be addressed by the use of some strategies.

 1 / Examples on some learning and communicative strategies used by ESL and EFL students

 So many studies and research have been conducted in both areas learning strategies and communicative strategies, and many researchers and linguists have been involved. Accordingly, different definitions and classifications of strategies have been stated. However here, I will spotlight on the computation of communicative strategies suggested by Faerch and Kasper ( 1983 ), and on the method of learning strategies suggested by Wenden and Rubin ( 1987 ). I will also show how each set of strategies are used by ESL and EFL learners. I have chosen the previous classifications because they confirm with the education of strategies I acquired throughout my teaching observation.

 Faerch and Kasper suggest that communicative strategies are classified into two categories each of which is classified or comprised of other subcategories. The first crew is protest behavior and this consists of formal decrease and functional diminution strategies. Formal decrease strategies could be phonological, morphological, syntactic and lexical strategies. Learners boost to use formal decrease strategies either to avoid creation errors and / or they thirst to accumulation their fluency ( Faerch& Kasper 1983: 40 ). On the other hand, functional lessening strategies subsume reduction of speech act and alleviation of propositional import and these two are used by learners to lessen their communicative goals in regulation to avoid problems in interactions ( ibid: 43 ). Achievement strategies are also called compensatory strategies and they consist of code switching, inter / intralingual, cooperative and non - linguistic strategies. These strategies are used by learners to expand their communicative resources in interactions ( ibid: 45 ). The following figure has been designed based on what was mentioned most:

 Wenden and Rubin classified learning strategies into analytical strategies and metacognitive strategies. Analytical strategies are used by learners when they deal with steps, operations, or problem - solving that have need direct analysis, transformation, or peace of learning materials ( Wenden & Rubin, 1987: 23 ) and these strategies constitute clarification / probing, guessing / inductive inferencing, deductive reasoning, practice, memorizing and vigil. On the other hand, metacognitive strategies are used when the learner deals with learning about thinking proceeding and regulation of cognition. These strategies consist of picking, prioritizing, self - management, advance preparation, advance arranging, directed attention, selected attention and unpunctual production. The following figure has been designed based on the data mentioned chief:

 2 / The short phrase benefits of training learners on the use of learning and communicative Strategies

 Research and theory in second speech learning strongly suggest that good vocabulary learners use a combo of strategies to relief them in gaining command over new words skills. In her favor of five Chicano students who were hash English, Wong - Fillmore as quoted in Wenden & Rubin, ( 1987: 27 ), identified some lore strategies used by successful language learners. Wong - Fillmore initiate that by using a few well chosen strategies, learners could abide to participate in speaking activities ( ibid: 21 ). Besides, O ' Malley ( 1983 ), reports on an shakedown in which students manifest sophistication on the use of the latest strategies with three vocabulary tasks; abracadabra, listening understanding and speech. His large-scale guess was that game plan know-how was moving for listening and conversation, but not for jive.

 One of the considerable insufficient title benefits of the use of the latest strategies is the fact that they help learners to regain for their scarcity of efficacious speech knowledge. Bygate ( 1987 ), states that the use of these strategies can bridge the gab between enlightenment of the rules and the students ' capability to exact their own drift. In other words, these strategies help learners to practice using acceptable words with logical fluency and just talent to truck meanings and out-and-out opinions. On that basis, it could be inferred that training learners on using these strategies would help them a lot in their language learning. Language learners will not be hesitant or uneasy of being involved in an interaction setting they do not have striking language letters for it. Bygate adds that being trained to use learning strategies helps the learner to succeed in autonomous interaction. According to this, using jibing strategies in learning represents a transitional the book bearings control of learning is moved from teacher to learners, start off the learner with fault for his own thinking and learning. In addition, Wenden& Rubin ( 1987 ), mention that learning strategies help learners to more useful exploit the involvement they bring to their conversation class. As a returns, learners grow appreciation of their power knack and become critically reflective of the conceptual content of their learning.

 The efficiency of communicative strategies training in learning languages has been proved in so many occasions. For instance, Spilka ( as cited in Faerch & Kasper 1983: 10 ), points that some trained French learners cherish to use specific phrases in symmetry to avoid link in French; to avoid French partitive en, the learners may produce the pressing conformation J ' ai trios pommes, somewhat than J ' en ai trios. So, the French learners are moulding use of the protest suggestion which is one of the communicative strategies. In another case, Kasper ( 1983: 43 ), gave some examples of how trained German learners of English reduce their IL performance with courtesy to politeness making. Moreover, Faerch ( 1983: 43 ), gave other examples of speech act lowering, in which learners in conversation with native speakers ofttimes do not use initiating acts ( lowering expedient ). Based on all that has been mentioned, we could verbalize that strategies be they learning or communicative ones, are important for speech learning for they are instruments for active, self - directed involvement, which is essential for developing communicative comprehension. I shall forthwith movement to groupthink the elongate interval benefits of the use of learning strategies.

 3 / The stretched period benefits of training conversation learners on the use of learning and communicative strategies

 As we have practical previously, there are so many short benefits for training learners on using learning and communicative strategies. Extended, there are other running phrase benefits for device training as well. Faerch and Kasper ( 1986: 189 ), report the findings of a study longitude an dry run was made to train learners to use interaction strategies ( some of the communicative strategies ). They were Danish learners of English and the training for projection use lasted for three months. The findings were that:

 a ) Middle proficiency level learners made considerable progress in using interaction strategies.

 b ) Low and huge proficiency learners made less progress.

 g ) The general belief in the class towards errors and towards risk - taking had single. More learners accepted the need to make an whack even if they did not get the right answer.

 Based on the findings of this study, we could deliver that training learners to use communicative strategies raises their confidence and encourages them to participate in different communicative interactions even when they don ' t have enough vocabulary for it ( e. g. when they don ' t have the answer for a matter ). In another study, Knowles ( 1975 ), finds that training learners to use these strategies helps them to mature the character that utterance is a permanent routine and to acquire the skills of self - directed learning. Most importantly, he points out that communicative strategies help learners to be able with the skills necessary to linger learning on their own when they concession formal education background.

 Many other studies have been carried out by different researchers and the deep interval benefits of communicative and learning strategies training have been proved. For instance, O ' Malley and Chamot ( 1990 ) looked at learning strategies used both by ESL and EFL students and they get going that training students to use these strategies helped them become more aware of the entire outgrowth of learning a second vocabulary. Based on the findings of one of their studies, Wenden & Rubin ( 1987 ), state that training learners to use learning strategies helps learners to larger further the judgment they bring to their words class and help them as well, to become critically reflective of the conceptual hint of their learning.