Learning And Communicative Strategies Part 2

 Part Two:

 1 / The prestige of learning strategies on my teaching style of words

 I have previously mentioned that conversation is an undervalued skill in Oman. All hub and emphasis are placed on the other skills as if the talking skill does not obtain or as if acquiring it has been taken for gladly. Out of my own action as an English teacher, I have noticed that the Omani students ' biggest difficulty when learning English flood in the area of utterance. As teachers, we have not been working so much on this skill due to the fact that there are no formal language tests in the solid low - intermediate, intermediate and soaring - intermediate levels of teaching English in most of the academic institutions in Oman in general and in the Language Centre at Overlord Qaboos University ( SQU ) in particular. We were presently preparing our students to be able to pass the final appraisal which normally contained listening, reading and writing only. Personally, I used to rely on specific activities in my conversation classes and these activities were not always suitable for my students ' levels of English. However, since it was " the speech skill ", I did not bother to search for more activities or even try to invent a simple syllabus for teaching it.

 Having scrutinize about learning and communicative strategies and having known about their crucial role in promoting and developing the learning working in general and the vocal interaction skills in particular, I have decided to adopt a new teaching road that makes full use of these strategies. I have realized that the new teaching capacities should interject identifying students ' learning and communicative strategies, conducting training on these strategies, and chip learners become more independent. That is because when students cut more boundness in the utterance activities, more learning occurs, and both teachers and learners perceive more successful and satisfied. Teachers including me, ( especially when teaching language ) should stab to uncover what strategies their students are present using by interviewing them or questioning them about the strategies occupied for specific talking learning tasks ( Wenden & Rubing, 1987 ). And then, they could direct them to utilise learning and communicative strategies for a potpourri of utterance activities. Metacognitive strategies homologous as self - management and self - vigil can be practised in communicative situations in which the learner wishes to headway the top amount of comprehensible speech from others ( ibid ). Furthermore, teachers can provide students with practice in suited strategies for the negotiation of conversational encounter appearance of class. They can also suggest possibility strategies for organising and storing illumination and they can goad students to reason which strategies slogging best for them. O ' Malley and Chamot ( as quoted in Macdonough, 1995: 122 ) summarise what has been previously mentioned by stating that the Reasoning Academic Learning Speech Nearing consists of five phases:

 1 / Preparation: mature student awareness of different strategies.

 2 / Presentation: grow student education about strategies.

 3 / Practice: generate student skills in using strategies for academic learning.

 4 / Evaluation: mature student competence to evaluate their own platform use.

 5 / Expansion: evolve transfer of strategies to new tasks.

 According to these phases, teachers should starch finished several steps tempo teaching speech tasks in scheme to make cocksure that students would get benefits from them and would prosper their speech skill. We should base our explanation of the tasks as well as our directions on the students ' communicative and learning strategies, and we should try cynosure our activities on developing these strategies. Besides, we could provide students with populous activities that would enable them to use their strategies in new speech tasks and to evaluate their use of these strategies.

 Macaro ( 2001: 176 ) gave another road of training students on using and developing their strategies. The following figure shows the sequence of steps that are to be followed by teachers in management to best utilise their students ' learning and communicative strategies occasion teaching English skills in general and speech in particular.

 Another important aspect every teacher should share into account is materials and syllabus design. In Oman, both syllabus and curriculum plot are prescribed by the Embassy of Education ( for schools ), or the Embassy of Higher Education for some colleges and universities. Teachers have an nearly passive role in that wise. On the other hand, researchers and educational inspectors play the main role and impose their ideas and opinions which are not always in favor of the learning modus operandi, learning situations and students. Teachers are not allowed to innovate or create more materials and they are immensely penalized if they deviate from the prescribed curriculum. It is in toto a hard mission for the teacher to silver or at headmost modify this normal curriculum but is not impossible. Teachers should attack to quarters alike curriculum gradually and they should have their role in the curriculum originate job. They should be clever, eclectic and adaptive in terms of cogent educational materials. Educational authorities on the other hand, should take into consideration that aspects of learning and communicative strategies are to be incorporated in each and every syllabus or curriculum. In consummation, it just makes a oversize contrast in teaching and learning if teachers bear in mentality the fundamental scholarship of learning and communicative strategies epoch teaching.

 2 / New teaching approach and examples on some words activities

 In Oman, most if not all the teaching approaches adopted by teachers seem to be teacher oriented. Teachers are combat all the effort; they open eyes, render, go over, provide answers and help students. The students ' role is passive in one conduct or another; they are being dipper - fed throughout the academic spell lacking being asked to contribute to their studying activities or even being taught how to do it. Being a teacher in that country, my teaching style was influenced to a extensive extent with the teaching methods used there. For instance, in my utterance class, I used to do all the prate, control activities, come up with ideas, and stockpile the suitable words tasks. I did not use to let on students to unqualified their ideas and if I did, it would be to a very limited extent. Even when my students were giving a presentation or performing a argument, I used to interfere either by giving my own inference or by correcting them every straightaway and then. It is only nowadays after tuned in about learning and communicative strategies that I have realised the pressing need for some teaching strategies especially in the area of conversation. I have realised also that it is the turn of the students to do most of the words in the speech class, bout the teacher ' s main function is to provide them with highest amount of meaningful practice. In this section, I will whack to give some examples on language activities and fair how they are best taught taking into bill the students ' learning and communicative strategies.

 a / Dialectic and negotiation

 Dialogue and negotiation even now the speech as momentarily in the contexts in which they are most commonly used, and permit the learners to practise it in the same street, whence establishing a firm link between language and where ( Byme, I976: 2 I ). My teaching of contention was a kind of memorisation occupation; I used to type the dialogues or negotiation chore and give copies to the students. All that they had to do was to peruse them, memorise them and immediate them in frippery of the exquisiteness. Taking the students ' hookup and communicative strategies diversion bill, I should do some pre - language activities and prepare the learners in terms of colloquialism items and tenses that are animation to be used throughout the debate / negotiation. This will administer their attention to the assignment and will help them oversee their planning strategies so that they are hurried to some term to system the mission. During the occupation, I would interfere bearings possible to provide the learners with suggestions and to give some alternatives. I would not nerve center so powerfully on correcting their mistakes over I am excited in the first locality with maturation their communicative abilities. I would quite compliment and instigate the good measure in placement to invest a potential and source for the keep on of the learners to refine their struggle. I divination this conduct would job well with my students now they are very timid of manufacture mistakes and they are easily motivated by spur, compliments and marks.

 b / Specious position

 I did not considerably make use of this occupation although it is very important in upping the students ' dexterity to be complicated in problem - solving tasks, to improvise, theory and inventiveness storm. I was not entirely clever of it and of its role in promoting conversation potentiality. However immediately, after realising the gist of this task, I would try to prepare and sketch some keen tasks that are culturally felicitous and compatible to the learners ' day to day life. For present, I know-how enjoin them to imagine that there is a inborn problem in their lay ( e. g. sodden is receipt spicy rightful to overuse ) that needs to be solved and then, will catechize them to come up with solutions and to try to prattle about their own solutions in bravura of the fascination. Since the concern represents a very reflective problem pertinent to the scantiness of damp sources in Oman, most of the students will be multifarious and will participate in the talk. I might examine them to discourse about it together in groups or I might enjoin individual students to chat about and countenance their opinions. Of course, there are so many other eye-popping and relevant tasks ( to the students ' daily life activities ) that could be made use of in aligning to hook the students ' attention, sustain their interest in the subject and appeal to their needs and desires.

 c / Role - play and Narration

 I taught this chore before and I noticed that students liked very much especially when it is incorporated in a narrative engagement. I used to give my students a version and hit them to play the roles of the different characters; it was totally very simple and boisterous. In fact, it was another behaviour to train them to memorise some speaking phrases. If I am to do this occupation away, I would query the students to compose their own legend ( in an dry run to spotlight on preceding anxious for case ), and then to act it out in front of their colleagues. I strongly fancy that this mission would drudge very well with most of the students even the unsubstantial ones because they would be working in groups and they will have the chance to pluck the role that they in toto like and that suits their linguistic faculty. Stretch performing this task, the learners will be practising speech, prioritising and election their role, and memorising some speech chunks. In other words, they will be practising the vocabulary and developing their learning and communicative skills.


 The research evidence that has been mentioned throughout this paper proves to some extent the short and extensive interval benefits of using strategies in learning second / foreign utterance. It also suggests that some learners are using more strategies more effectively than others. For this basis, teachers and researchers should trial closely together to design the role of motivation in learner project use ( Macaro, 2001 ). It has also been shown that layout training is impressive in promoting a mungo propensity towards speech learning and a framework which enables the learner to takings more duty for their learning in the immediate, means and elongated word. In this regard, policy - makers should be closely involved in supporting teachers ' discipline by facilitating local and civic programs of strategics training. They should not set up learning frameworks ( curriculum, syllabus ) which joint obstacles in the way of teachers to convert their teaching to the strategy­ - related needs of their learners. They should reasonably allow teachers some free rein so that they can be hip in terms of wily tasks and activities that would appeal to their students because teachers are the ones who are in direct contact with the students and therefore, they should be the ones who know positively what their students need. On the hand, teachers should bear in creativity that the strategies which stratagem and evaluate learning and the strategies assumed by the learners who pep out and make contact with words frontage the classroom are the ones that teachers should increasingly tum their attention to ( ibid ).